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填充题之文中选词型题目的相关技巧

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<p align="justify">雅思阅读题型中,文中选词型填充题由于其题目顺序与文章一致且相对紧凑,对于单词要求不高等特点属于较简单题目,而且,其答案形式与文中词的形式一样,不需要考生深入理解对应句或进行总结概括更改文中原词形式。针对于文中选词型填充题,考生需要稳住较高甚至全部正确率,但是,在实际教学中发现考生在处理此类题型时亦会出现各种漏洞导致丢分,并不能快速且高正确率的完成题目。接下来,朗阁老师带考生们一起“围观”探讨文中选词型填充题的核心应对策略。</p><p align="justify"> </p><p><!--[if !supportLists]-->一、 <!--[endif]--><b>文中选词型填充题的核心技巧</b><b></b></p><p align="justify">1、利用空前空后关键词“卡定”答案选择范围。空与关键词在题目中的位置关系与文中答案与关键词对应点的位置关系大致一致;空与前后关键词的逻辑关系也体现出文中答案与关键词的逻辑关系。例如,空前出现动词,空与其之前的动词存在动词关系,文中正确答案前后也会存在动词体现题目中的动词关系;空与前后关键词为因果或转折关系,文中答案与关键词保持题目中的因果或转折逻辑关系。</p><p>例1</p><p> </p><p align="justify">题目:Johnson’s principal achievement was to bring___to the English language.</p><p align="justify">文中对应句:in James Boswell’s words, “conferred<i> stability </i>on language of his country.” (剑5)</p><p align="justify"> </p><p align="justify">题目中空前出现动词bring空后出现English language,与正确答案在文中与定位点关系性一致。</p><p align="justify"> </p><p align="justify">例2</p><p align="justify"> </p><p align="justify">题目:Plants which do not respond to light levels are referred to as___.</p><p align="justify">文中对应句:Plants which flower after a period of vegetative growth, regardless of photoperiod, are known as <i>day-neutral plants</i>. ﹙剑5)</p><p align="justify"> </p><p align="justify">题目中空前的be referred to as 与文中定位句前的be known as 一致。</p><p> </p><p align="justify">例3</p><p align="justify"> </p><p align="justify">题目:Tolerance to shade is one criterion for the___of plants in forestry and horticulture.</p><p align="justify">文中对应句:shade-tolerant species and shade-intolerant species, this <i>classification</i> is commonly used in forestry and horticulture.(剑5)</p><p align="justify"> </p><p align="justify">题目中空前空后关键词与文中定位句与空的位置一致。</p><p> </p><p align="justify">例4</p><p align="justify"> </p><p align="justify">题目:For thousands of years they have had to rely on catching ___and___.</p><p align="justify">文中对应句:a mere 4500years ago, surviving by exploiting<i> sea mammals and fish</i>.(剑6)</p><p align="justify">题目中两个空由and连接成并列关系,文中正确答案也为并列关系,由and或as well as连接。</p><p> </p><p align="justify">例5</p><p align="justify"> </p><p align="justify">题目:He feels this would help to change the attitudes of both___and__.</p><p align="justify">文中对应句:to shifting <i>consumers as well as farmers</i> towards a more sustainable system of agriculture.(剑7)</p><p align="justify"> </p><p align="justify">同例4。</p><p> </p><p align="justify">例6</p><p align="justify"> </p><p align="justify">题目:Radar is an inaccurate term when referring to bats because___are not used in their navigation system.</p><p align="justify">文中对应句:It is technically incorrect to talk about bat radar, since they do not use <i>radio waves</i>.(剑7)</p><p align="justify"> </p><p align="justify">题目中空所在从句与主句为because逻辑关系,与原文since引导的逻辑关系一致。</p><p> </p><p align="justify"> </p><p align="justify">2、利用所选词的相关语法性选择文中词。填充题目中待填充处的词汇必须满足句中基本语法要求,即,待填入词汇应满足句中所要求的词性及形式,例如,需要填入名词,形容词或其他,名词是为单数还是复数形式,形容词是辅音还是元音开头等,再有,所需填入的词汇是表示人的词汇或是表示物的词汇等。因为文中选词型填充题的答案与文中词一致,考生可以根据题目所判断出的语法性在通过核心技巧一卡定的答案范围中直接挑选符合语法性的词汇做答案,也可通过所需语法性检测所填答案是否正确,以此提高解题速度以及正确率。</p><p align="justify"> </p><p align="justify">例1</p><p align="justify"> </p><p align="justify">题目:he took on a number of___, who stood at a long central desk.</p><p align="justify">文中对应句:with a long desk running downing the middle at which the copying clerks would work standing up.(剑5)</p><p align="justify"> </p><p align="justify">题目中空前a number of帮助确定所需要的词为名词复数,空后面who确定空上应填表示人物的名词复数,在定位句中满足此语法性条件的只有copying clerks。</p><p align="justify"> </p><p align="justify">例2</p><p align="justify"> </p><p align="justify">题目:the sensation is more similar to the way in which pain from a___arm or leg might be felt.</p><p align="justify">文中对应句:like the referred pain in a phantom limb.(剑7)</p><p align="justify"> </p><p align="justify">题目空前a与空后arm or leg确定此空语法性应为形容词,即使考生对于phantom limb都不熟悉,根据语法性也能确定两词中phantom为形容词。</p><p align="justify"> </p><p align="justify">例3</p><p align="justify">题目:the word ‘echolocation’ was first used by someone working as a___.</p><p align="justify">文中对应句:the American zoologist Donald Griffin, who was largely responsible......﹙剑7)</p><p align="justify"> </p><p align="justify">题目中空前关键词working as a推断空上需要填写表示职业且辅音开头的名词。</p><p align="justify"> </p><p align="justify"><!--[if !supportLists]-->二、<!--[endif]--><b>文中选词型题目的注意事项</b><b></b></p><p align="justify">1、字数要求。文中正确答案必须符合字数要求,且所有题目中必须至少有一题满足字数要求的最高限制,即如果题目规定no more than three words,至少有一空所填的正确答案为3个词。例如,剑10 test 1 passage 1,字数要求one word and/or a number,考生应该意识到必须有一个空的正确答案为数字加一个英文单词。</p><p align="justify"> </p><p align="justify"><!--[if !supportLists]-->2、<!--[endif]-->定位句中无符合条件的答案。通过空前空后核心定位词定位下的句子中没有符合空上所需语法要求的单词,正确答案一般会出现在定位句的下一句。</p><p align="justify"> </p><p align="justify">例1</p><p align="justify"> </p><p align="justify">题目:Day length is a useful cue for breeding in areas where___are predictable.</p><p align="justify">文中对应点:Day length is an excellent cue, because it provides a perfectly predictable pattern within the year. In temperate zone in spring, temperatures fluctuate greatly from day to day.(剑5)</p><p align="justify"> </p><p align="justify">题目空中所需词应为名词复数,在文中定位句本句中无符合语法要求的答案,正确答案在定位句下句中出现。</p><p align="justify"> </p><p align="justify"><!--[if !supportLists]-->3、<!--[endif]-->定位句中答案位置为代词。定位句中不直接输出具体答案,而是由代词形式替代,如遇这种情况,正确答案出现在定位句上一句。</p><p align="justify"> </p><p align="justify">例1</p><p align="justify"> </p><p align="justify">题目:This was followed by a wartime application in devices for finding___.</p><p align="justify">文中对应句:before weapons designers adapted it for the detection of submarines. Both sides in the Second World War relied heavily on these devices.(剑7)</p><p align="justify"> </p><p align="justify">文中定位中答案形式为these devices,these指代的具体名词在上一句中出现。</p><p align="justify"> </p><p align="justify">例2</p><p align="justify"> </p><p align="justify">题目:In western Northern America, a species of___has destroyed many trees.</p><p align="justify">文中对应句:Mild winter are causing massive outbreak of bark beetle. These tiny creatures can kill entire forests as they tunnel their way.(OG)</p><p align="justify"> </p><p align="justify">文中答案以these tiny creatures指代,所填词语应为上一句中的bark beetle.</p><p align="justify"> </p><p>因此,考生在练习文中选词型填充题时应时刻注意空前空后关键词起到的“卡词”作用,以及充分利用语法性敲定答案,以此提高文中选词的正确率。</p><p><img alt='填充题之文中选词型题目的相关技巧' src="https://dxz-prod-1252753627.cos.ap-beijing.myqcloud.com/resource/img/pub/article/654483c10d0c3fbbce3c83815a053a14png" style="max-width:100%;"></p>
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